Pannonian mixed forests

Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czechia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia

Part of the wider Pannonian Region, this ecoregion comprises the broadleaf and mixed forests of the area. Large lowland steppes and grasslands are intermixed, producing a colourful tapestry of fertile land.



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307,720 km²

UNESCO World Heritage Sites​



Background – CC Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported – Nicu Farcaș, 2016 / Map – CC Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported – Terpsichores, 2012

Help your Ecoregion
So what can you do to help your ecoregion? Below is a list to help you support your ecoregion, while also achieving life's everyday tasks. Don’t underestimate your power in doing good for nature!


Food: Salad Box


Energy Provider: Tema Energy
Waste Management: Environ

At Home
Below is a list of actions you can easily take at home to minimise your impact on the ecoregion in which you live, and the rest of the planet too!
In your Garden
Below is a list of native plants and habitat creation tips you can use in your garden or on your property to give your ecoregion and its species a boost!


Plant important keystone trees that make up the Pannonian mixed forests like Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur), Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea), European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris) if you have space. To create habitat, consider installation of nestboxes for native birds and creating hollows in old, dead tree limbs.


Plant native sub-canopy trees like the important Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), Silver Birch (Betula pendula), Tatarian Maple (Acer tataricum), European Aspen (Populus tremula) and Flowering Ash (Fraxinus ornus). To create habitat, consider installation of nestboxes for native birds and creating tree hollows in old, dead tree limbs.


Grow beautiful shrubs like Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), European Dwarf Cherry (Prunus fruticosa) and Butcher's-broom (Ruscus aculeatus). To create habitat, consider installing insect hotels, compost-heaps and bird-baths in this layer.


Plant bulbs that bring spring colour to your garden such as the native Poet's Daffodil (Narcissus poeticus) and Steppe Iris (Iris aphylla), while for more open areas try grassland natives like Inflated Milk-vetch (Astragalus vesicarius), Salt Wormwood (Artemisia santonicum) and Dyer's Alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria). To create habitat, consider installing a pond or bog-garden with native aquatic and riparian plants, log-piles for sheltering amphibians and reptiles and leave areas of leaf-litter for important insects.


The Pannonian mixed forests are a large ecoregion centred around the middle of Europe and contain a wide array of different ecosystems. The wider Pannonian Region is essentially a huge plain of sedimentary soils, encircled with mountain ranges, through which two major rivers flow; the Danube and the Tisza. The soils are alluvial and rich, and so many different plant communities have evolved atop of its dynamic geological history. From vast open steppe and plains to the centre and west where the Great Hungarian Plain stretches to the horizon, to more undulating hills and valleys around the edges where forests of mixed trees grow. Biodiversity is very special in the region with many of the plants endemic, and many unusual mammals that once were more widespread across Europe like the Hungarian Birch-mouse. Underground the dominant role of water has made its mark on the limestone base-rock carving karst landscapes and deep caves. Much of the area has been used for intensive farming and plantation forestry, both of which threaten the delicate and millennia-old natural landscapes and biodiversity of the area.

Ecoregion Structure
The structure of the ecoregion is defined as the key living and non-living features characterising its ecosystems, and the differences between how these ecosystems are arranged. For example, layers of vegetation, geology, habitat features and landscapes.


A series of small, deep basins creating a large plain of sedimentary soils, encircled with mountain ranges



Iconic Landscapes

Native plant communities

Scenes by @blueringmedia
Ecoregion Composition
The composition of the ecoregion is defined as the biodiversity that inhabits its ecosystems, and the differences between this biodiversity. For example, communities, populations, species, subspecies and genetic traits.
Keystone Species​
Keystone species are those that have a disproportionately large effect on the ecosystems in which they live, relative to their natural abundance there. In other words, species with a really important role in the health of ecosystems.
Flagship Species
Flagship species are those that are chosen by people to represent a wider conservation message, usually for a given place or social context, and as such often carry conservation messages for wider biodiversity.

Sand Crocus
(Colchicum arenarium)

Recently Extinct Species
All around the world, biodiversity is declining at a concerning rate. For some species it's already too late, and they have disappeared from the ecoregions they once called home. These are some examples of those lost species.

(Equus ferus subsp. ferus)

Ecoregion Function
The function of the ecoregion is defined as how its structural and compositional components all work together to form ecological relationships and processes which change over time through geological shifts and evolution by natural selection.

Keystone Relationships

Red-footed Falcons are aerobatic omnivores! Their diet comprises a whole range of prey from frogs and lizards to mice and insects. Their role in Pannonian ecosystems is vital for food-chain balance.

Life-support Systems​

Keystone Relationships
As an apex predator, Brown Bears are essential in the balance of healthy ecosystems in the Balkan mixed forests. Their predation on herbivores such as deer species, keeps vegetation succession and many related food-chains, in check.

Biodiversity is fundamental to a healthy planet and thriving communities, but the world's species are under tremendous threat.