Carpathian montane conifer forests

Czechia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine

One of Europe’s most untouched regions containing much of its ancestral extent and condition. The Carpathian Mountain range is a large arc of uplifted rock cloaked in mountain mists and an alluring wilderness to explore.

Carpathian montane conifer forests


0 %


Background – CC Attribution Share Alike 2.5 Generic – BáthoryPéter, 2007 / Map – CC Attribution Share Alike 3.0 Unported – Terpsichores, 2012

Help your Ecoregion
So what can you do to help your ecoregion? Below is a list to help you support your ecoregion, while also achieving life's everyday tasks. Don’t underestimate your power in doing good for nature!


Food: Salad Box


Energy Provider: Tema Energy
Waste Management: Environ

At Home
Below is a list of actions you can easily take at home to minimise your impact on the ecoregion in which you live, and the rest of the planet too!
In your Garden
Below is a list of native plants and habitat creation tips you can use in your garden or on your property to give your ecoregion and its species a boost!


Try some of this mountainous region's most famous trees like Arolla Pine (Pinus cembra), European Larch (Larix decidua) and Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens). To create habitat, consider installation of nestboxes for native birds and creating hollows in old, dead tree limbs.


Plant native sub-canopy trees like Mountain Pine (Pinus mugo), St Lucie Cherry (Prunus mahaleb) and Flowering Ash (Fraxinus ornus). To create habitat, consider installation of nestboxes for native birds and creating tree hollows in old, dead tree limbs.


Grow beautiful climbers like Clematis integrifolia through native shrubs like Carpathian Rhododendron (Rhododendron myrtifolium) and European Smoke-tree (Cotinus coggygria). To create habitat, consider installing insect hotels, compost-heaps and bird-baths in this layer.


Plant swathes of gorgeous mountain plants characteristic of this region. Plants like Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale), tufts of feature grasses such as Melica transsilvanica, White Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea), yellow Globeflower (Trollius europaeus), Mountain Avens (Dryas octopetala), Polygala major, Downy Woundwort (Stachys germanica), Aconitum anthora and the delicate Dianthus spiculifolius are perfect choices for colour. To create habitat, consider installing a pond or bog-garden with native aquatic and riparian plants, log-piles for sheltering amphibians and reptiles and leave areas of leaf-litter for important insects.


Remnants of primeval coniferous, beech and oak forests adorn undulating mountain slopes, pastures and valleys, while high sub-alpine passes are a haven for wildflowers. This ecoregion is one of Europe’s most pristine and is a focus of international effort to preserve and expand. The native vegetation is split broadly into three altitudinal zones: in the foothills, forests of broadleaf trees dominate, while in the montane forests beech, spruce and larch mix together. At the higher points, sub-alpine krummholtz communities grow which are dominated by small twisted trees such as Mountain Pine and junipers, while past the timberline, alpine meadows takeover. Fauna is varied and includes some of the best-preserved populations of Europe’s apex predators. Eurasian Brown Bear, eagles, European Wildcat and various species of deer can be found throughout. While much of the ecoregion is pristine, threats are growing from logging and the encroachment of cities and towns.

Ecoregion Structure
The structure of the ecoregion is defined as the key living and non-living features characterising its ecosystems, and the differences between how these ecosystems are arranged. For example, layers of vegetation, geology, habitat features and landscapes.


Sandstone and limestone deposits along with metamorphic rocks thrust up through tectonic movement



Iconic Landscapes

Native plant communities

Scenes by @blueringmedia
Ecoregion Composition
The composition of the ecoregion is defined as the biodiversity that inhabits its ecosystems, and the differences between this biodiversity. For example, communities, populations, species, subspecies and genetic traits.
Keystone Species​
Keystone species are those that have a disproportionately large effect on the ecosystems in which they live, relative to their natural abundance there. In other words, species with a really important role in the health of ecosystems.

Carpathian Lynx
(Lynx lynx subsp. carpathicus)

Flagship Species
Flagship species are those that are chosen by people to represent a wider conservation message, usually for a given place or social context, and as such often carry conservation messages for wider biodiversity.
Recently Extinct Species
All around the world, biodiversity is declining at a concerning rate. For some species it's already too late, and they have disappeared from the ecoregions they once called home. These are some examples of those lost species.

(Equus ferus subsp. ferus)

Ecoregion Function
The function of the ecoregion is defined as how its structural and compositional components all work together to form ecological relationships and processes which change over time through geological shifts and evolution by natural selection.

Keystone Relationships

Carpathian Lynx are formidable hunters. They rely on ambush techniques to stalk and then jump their prey including deer, goat and sheep.

Life-support Systems​

Keystone Relationships
As an apex predator, Brown Bears are essential in the balance of healthy ecosystems in the Balkan mixed forests. Their predation on herbivores such as deer species, keeps vegetation succession and many related food-chains, in check.

Biodiversity is fundamental to a healthy planet and thriving communities, but the world's species are under tremendous threat.